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What are hormones?


 


Hormones can be defined as chemicals that are secreted by certain organs of the body, known as the glands, and traced in their classification to an organ known as the endocrine system (in English: Endocrine system), and in fact the principle in the presence of hormones to achieve communication between the various organs of the body, as the glands release these hormones into the bloodstream, and from the bloodstream transmitted to the organs or tissues concerned, and once the hormone organ concerned, a series of reactions occur within this organ or tissue, it is worth noting that hormones are Is true and accurate.


Functions of hormones

The hormones secreted by the endocrine glands in the body have a large and very important role in the functions of the body, from which we mention what comes:

 * Regulate metabolic processes that occur within the body, including food-related metabolic processes.

•Regulate the speed of chemical reactions in various cells of the body.

* Stimulate certain substances to move themselves or move through the body's cell membranes.

•Stimulate the growth and development of cells and tissues.

* Initiating, developing and maintaining processes related to sexual development.

* Control human thirst.

* Maintain constant body temperature of the organism.

* Control human mood and cognitive abilities.


Types of hormones by glands

The most important hormones in the body can be explained according to the gland that secrete it as it comes:


Hormones of the hypothalamus

There are a group of hormones produced by the hypothalamus, which are mainly responsible for stimulating or preventing the secretion of pituitary Gland hormones.:

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (corticotropin-releasing hormone).

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (gonadotropin-releasing hormone).

* Growth Hormone-releasing hormone)

* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone.


Pituitary hormones

These glands are located at the bottom of the brain and does not exceed the size of a pea, and hormones secreted by these glands is what comes:

* Growth hormone that stimulates bone and tissue growth.

* Thyroid-stimulating hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete its own hormones.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (adrenocorticotropic hormone), which stimulates the adrenal secretion of steroids.

Luteinizing hormone (luteinizing hormone) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (Follicle-stimulating hormone), which control sexual functions in the body including the secretion of the hormones progesterone and estrogen in women and testosterone in men.

•Prolactin (English: Prolactin), which stimulates the secretion of milk in women.

•Antidiuretic hormone, which controls the loss of water from the body through the kidneys.

Oxytocin (also known as Oxytocin) stimulates uterine muscle contractions during childbirth, as well as stimulating milk secretion.


The adrenal hormones

The human body has two adrenal glands, one above the right kidney and the other above the left kidney, and in fact each of them consists of two main parts, the first is the adrenal cortex (English: Adrenal cortex), and the second is the heart of the adrenal medulla (English: Adrenal medulla), and each part is responsible for the secretion of a:

* Hormones of the adrenal cortex: they are two main types of corticosteroids, namely glucocorticoid hormones or glucocorticoids, and mineral corticoid hormones or mineral corticoids (English: Mineralocorticoids), and their statement: glucocorticoids: hydrocortisone (English: Hydrocortisone) and corticosterone (English: corticosterone), and hydrocortisone it regulates the conversion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy, in addition to its role in controlling blood pressure, heart function and circulation. Corticosterone, along with hydrocortisone, controls the immune system's response and inflammatory reactions in the body.

◦Mineral corticosteroids: the most important of all is the hormone aldosterone, which controls the level of water and salts in the body, thereby regulating blood pressure.


* Adrenergic hormones: although the importance of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex is less important than those secreted by the adrenal cortex, they have an important role in responding to emotional conditions and stress in various forms, and these hormones are what comes: adrenaline (English: Adrenaline), also known as Epinephrine (English: Epinephrine), which responds to stress by increasing the strokes of the dome and pumping blood to the brain and bones, as well as

Norepinephrine (also known as Norepinephrine), works alongside adrenaline in stress conditions, in addition to narrowing blood vessels in such conditions, causing high blood pressure.


The thyroid hormones

The thyroid gland produces two essential hormones, Triiodothyronine (Triiodothyronine), which accounts for 20% of its total secretion of hormones, and Thyroxine (thyroxine-T4), which accounts for 80%, and it should be noted that triiodothyronine is the hormone with the strongest effect.


Parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid Hormone (parathyroid Hormone) produces a single hormone, known as parathyroid hormone, which acts primarily on bone-forming cells, by stimulating them to release calcium into the bloodstream.


Pineal gland hormone

The pineal gland is located in the center of the brain, and the only hormone it produces is the hormone Melatonin, and the primary function of this hormone is to regulate the daily frequency (in English: Circadian Rhythm), which consists of what circadian rhythm circulates during the twenty-four hours of the day, including waking and sleeping.melatonin is also responsible for controlling the reproductive hormones and the processes associated with the reproductive system.


Thymus hormones

Thymosin is the only hormone produced by the thymus gland, and this hormone stimulates the development of T-cells, which are part of the body's immune system, and when they mature and mature, they migrate to the lymph nodes scattered throughout the body, which are also part of the body's immune system, and help fight infections and diseases that may


Pancreatic hormones

Pancreatic hormones play an important role in regulating the levels of sugar and some salts in the body.:

* Gastrin: (English: Gastrin), this hormone stimulates the secretion of acids from the stomach to aid digestion.

Insulin helps control blood sugar levels by stimulating cells to absorb glucose.

* Glucagon, which works in the opposite way to the hormone insulin, to maintain glucose in the blood.

Somatostatin is secreted in cases where insulin and glucagon levels are too high to regulate sugar and salt levels in the body.

Vasoactive intestinal peptide () is a vasoactive intestinal peptide that controls the secretion and absorption of water from the intestine.


Hormones of the genitals

The ovaries secrete two essential hormones, estrogen and progesterone, which are responsible for the development of female sexual traits in adulthood, as well as for the regulation of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, etc. As for the testicles in men, they act on the secretion of testosterone, and it works on the development of the male genitalia, and male traits are generally in terms of voice, muscles, etc.

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