Factors affecting the climate of continental Europe


 


Factors of climate classification of the continent of Europe


The climate of the continent of Europe is affected by several factors, namely :


Its location relative to the display circuits


The continent of Europe extends between the 36th and 71st latitudes north, where most of its area is in the northern temperate zone, which is characterized by moderate temperature, and dominated by moist westerly winds, which carry warmth and moisture, and which come from the Atlantic Ocean, factors that influence the climate of a region .


The distance from the equator


The distance from the equator affects the climate of the continent, it is at the poles, the energy coming from the sun to the Earth's surface at low angles and passing through a layer of atmosphere thicker than at the equator, this means that the climate is cooler at the poles than at the equator, and the Poles also witness a big difference between the.


The Shape of the continent of Europe


The continent of Europe is characterized by its small size, as it expands in the East, and the penetration of the sea into the European mainland due to the frequent zigzagging of its coasts, helped by the presence of marine influence on the continent of Europe and the predominance of moderation.


Direction of mountain ranges


The Alps are one of the most important heights of the continent of Europe, as they extend from West to East in its southern part, and this extension plays a large role in the climate of the continent, as the western winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean penetrate the continent due to their alignment with these mountain ranges.

These chains are an impediment to the extension of polar influences in the north to the south of the continent, as well as an impediment to air masses coming from Africa heading to the north of the continent, and the Chaldean Highlands extending from northeast to Southwest are in conflict with the westerly wind direction, resulting in varying rainfall rates between the western and eastern slopes.

The mountains receive more rainfall in low-lying areas due to the cooling of the air in the high ground, which causes the moist air to condense and fall with the precipitation, the higher the place above sea level the colder the atmosphere, and this happens because the higher the altitude, the air becomes thinner and less able to absorb the heat and


Pressure zones adjacent to the continent


The climate of the continent of Europe is affected by five pressure ranges:


The first is manifested in the European high pressure area of the Atlantic Ocean, where it produces sunny weather due to the widening of its influence summer to extend to northwestern Europe.


The second band is centered in the Icelandic low pressure zone.


The third band is the pressure centered in Central Asia.


The fourth Range is the low pressure on the Mediterranean Sea.


The fifth range is in the warm Gulf Stream, which affects the climate in the West and north-west of the continent, is characterized by warmth, and in Winter contributes to the formation of Hurricane fronts because it meets with cold continental masses on the one hand and with westerly winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean on the other.


El Nino


Blamed on El Niño, a phenomenon that affects wind and rain patterns, especially in droughts and floods in countries around the Pacific Ocean, El Niño refers to the irregular warming of surface water in the Pacific Ocean, in addition to pumping warmer water for energy and moisture into the atmosphere, changing global wind patterns and precipitation.

This phenomenon caused hurricanes in Florida, served to form smog in Indonesia and forest fires in Brazil.

El Niño is a Spanish word meaning "baby boy“, so named because it comes at the time of the celebration of the birth of the child Christ, its cold counterpart is known as La Niña, Spanish means” baby girl", and it also brings with it the vagaries of the weather.


Human impact


We can not forget that human influence directly affects our climate: early in human history, human influence on climate was very small, but with the increase in population and logging in large numbers, the negative impact on climate has increased, for example, trees absorb carbon dioxide and produce oxygen but cutting them will result in a decrease in the number of trees and

The Industrial Revolution, which began at the end of the XIX century, had a significant impact on the climate, since it was based on the invention of the engine, as well as increased the combustion of fossil fuels, which in turn increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


Climatic regions of the continent of Europe


Northern European climate region


The climate of the North extends to the northern parts overlooking the Arctic Ocean, that is, in Scandinavia, including Iceland.

This product is characterized by winters wet and very cold because of the low temperature to below zero and continue this decline for nine months, and as we head to the East, because the East be far away from the warm Gulf Stream, unlike the West where a very low temperature because of the warm Gulf Stream nearby, we find that in winter abound and snow-covered land and green spaces, the growing season is short, the period of the growth of these herbs and plants be few because of the period of dormancy throughout the winter.

In summer, the climate is also moderately humid, cooler.


Eastern European climate region


Known as the continental climate, this continental climate covers the central and eastern part of Europe and is characterized by a large thermal range, as it ranges from 18 to 39 m .one of the main characteristics of the climate type is the long-term cold winter period, in which the temperature drops below zero Celsius causing rivers to freeze.

The summer is hot, where the temperatures rise, because of the exposure of this region to hot air masses coming from Asia East, in addition to the rainfall in the summer and reaches a maximum in June and July, and their quantity decreases as we head east, which is often a overturning rain due to the western winds.

In order to keep the grass green under these extreme conditions, choose the Barenbrug varieties that can withstand the rigors of winter and summer, however, we find that the closer to the Mediterranean or the Black Sea, the climate becomes milder due to the effects caused by the sea.


Climate region of Central Europe


This region moves between the climate of the West and east of the continent, where the temperatures and rainfall vary due to the different surface features in it, the higher we find that the temperatures drop, and the year-long atmospheric decline in this section is affected by the Icelandic atmospheric decline in winter and the continental polar masses.

In the summer, this region is the target of marine tropical air masses and continental tropical masses, as well as North-West and south-west winds, while the rains are distributed throughout the year.


Southern Europe and Mediterranean climate


This climate is concentrated in the southern parts of the continent overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, among the countries where this climate prevails are Spain, Portugal, southern France, Italy, Greece and Turkey.

This product is characterized by four suitable properties, manifested in the are that falls in the winter and also rain in a dry summer, the middling temperature in winter, where not less than 4.4 M, and in the summer the sky is sunny and the temperature is rising, where more than 31 M.

Drought and poor irrigation water quality are among the biggest problems that lawn managers have to deal with. Barenbrug therefore included drought-tolerant varieties and varieties in its blends for the southern regions.


Sub-continental climate


This region manifests itself between the continental and Mediterranean climatic zone, a transitional zone called the sub-continental climate, and northern Italy, Slovenia and Croatia partly belong to this region, and in the summer the temperatures rise and the atmosphere is hot as in the Mediterranean region, while in winter the temperatures fall and are accompanied by Frost and are very cold as in the


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